Nhận định hmu là gì | Sen Tây Hồ

Native legends of the different Miao tribes mention about an ancient migration from a “cold land in the northSee Savina, F. M., 1924, Histoire des Miao. Paris: Société des Missions Etrangères.”. Meanwhile some myths mention an ancient indigenous script that the ancestors of the Miao lost during the process of forced migration. Remnants of this pictographic writing are said to be preserved in the sophisticated embroidery pattern of clothes and costumes. Miao intellectuals have identified nearly forty pictographic words within the embroidery design.

Deviant versions of the myth suggest that the ancient script was eaten by the Miao, which resulted in inner qualities such as ability to memorize the traditional songs. Some versions of this myth raise the expectation that the lost script would be resuscitated in the future. Pollard’s missionary script could capitalize on this expectation as the Ahmao in Western Guìzhōu viewed it as fulfilling the function the ancient writing once had.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Miao, primarily ancestors of the Hmu, mounted three rebellions in Guìzhōu Province against the imperial government, all of which resulted in defeat.

  • the First Miao Rebellion (1735-1738),

  • the Second Miao Rebellion (1795-1806) and

  • the Third Miao Rebellion (1854-1873).

Robert JenksSee Jenks, R., 1994, Insurgency and social disorder in Guìzhōu. The “Miao” Rebellion 1854-1873. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. relates the visceral motivations for the Miao to revolt against the three types of grievances: the alienation of ancestral land by Han merchants, excessive government taxation, and maladministration on the part of officials.

sentayho.com.vn - China - Hmu 苗 - People Second Miao Rebellion (1795-1806)Second Miao Rebellion in Guìzhōu and Húnán Provinces sentayho.com.vnianic expectations in the Miao folk religion might have accentuated the rebellious fervor as well. Jenks discusses the possibility that some Miao rebels may have been influenced by Han White Lotus sects (白莲教). Notably, these movements worship Maitreya, the future Buddha of Buddhist eschatology.

Besides the Miao, other ethnic minorities, Muslims, discontented Han, and religious folk sects joined the insurrections during which, by one account, almost five million people lost their lives. In addition, vast areas were depopulated.

The knowledge of these events remains ensconced in the collective memory of the Hmu people. Consequently, the Hmu have assimilated to the surrounding Han culture to a greater extent than, for example, the Ahamo in Western Guìzhōu, who did not participate in the rebellion. The Hmu society is an order comprising of about 20 clans of patrilineal lineage, each of which has its own name (e.g. Dliangx, Fangs). Babies are given native names at birth and additional Chinese names at the local registration office. The Hmu are strictly exogamous and intermarriage within a clan is prohibited. Membership to a clan is inherited through the male line. While unmarried women are members of the clan of their fathers, they become associated with the clan of their husbands after marriage.

sentayho.com.vn - China - Hmu 苗 - PeopleMen blow the Lusheng in TáijiāngThe Hmu people grow paddy rice in the valleys in alternation with wheat or rape. Rice, maize, millet, and buckwheat are planted on the high terraced hillsides. Traditional houses are made of wood, have two to four storeys, and are roofed with either straw or bark. Most homes have a hearth but lack a chimney, thereby causing the house to be smoky.

Each village chooses a chief who is knowledgeable about the traditional customs and who may or may not be a Party Official. Typically, members of the same clan reside in the same village and gather for important social events. Since the year 2000, many young Hmu people have migrated to industrial areas in Guangdong in order to earn a living, while the elderly stay back home. The Hmu people are known to celebrate a number of festivals, primarily during the autumn, winter, and spring seasons:

  • sentayho.com.vn - China - Hmu 苗 - PeopleYoung women at the “Sister Festival”Lusheng Festivals 芦笙节 are dating events organized by groups of villages in the month of January, during which young men and women perform song competitions.

  • Sister Festivals 姊妹节 are events organized in the months of April and May, during which the Hmu women showcase their traditional decorative costumes.

  • Ancestor Festivals 牯藏 are held every 13 years wherein a shaman slaughters an ox to officiate the communion between the members of a clan and the deceased ancestors.

  • Dragon Festivals 龙节 such as the Dragon Boat Festival or the Dragon Lantern Festival commemorate different folk myths: victory over a dragon that troubled the local community, or the invocation of protective forces of a benign dragon.

In Hmu society, songs serve the purpose of a medium of communication and self-expression. Groups of young men and women compete in multivocal songs at meetings, such as the Lusheng Festival. At such festivals, the Hmu people entertain relatives and visitors alike with copious amounts of liquor brewed from rice or maize.